At present, there are two phenomena in textile enterprises: First, based on cost pressure, the number of personnel is reduced in proportion each year, but the technological transformation cannot keep up. The second is often not hiring people, the spinning workshop lacks people to drive, especially during holidays and hot seasons, or the working hours of operators continue to increase from 8 hours to 12 hours, or the platform blindly expands, using salary increases as a bargaining chip, the highest salary More than 9000 yuan/month. The equipment is still the same, but the number of maintenance workers has decreased. About 6 people are responsible for 36 cars, sometimes only 4 to 5 people are left. Workers' wages have increased, but the quality of equipment maintenance has not improved, and the rate of failure and end breakage has increased, which can only be done at the expense of product quality. Even when some companies are short of people, there is a phenomenon that the management can replace workers. This serious shortage of personnel not only caused management confusion, but also exacerbated the loss of personnel.
Of course, many companies choose smart devices with reliable performance, high degree of automation, and self-diagnosis and self-monitoring functions to replace manual labor. The results show that, despite less labor, they can produce high-quality, high-value-added products.
Equipment stability is the foundation
Spinning production is a labor-intensive industry. In the early 1980s, there were 200-300 workers per 10,000 spindles. Although the performance of domestic equipment in the past is far worse than today, the old equipment emphasizes fine maintenance and equipment status, and more labor and decomposition management are used to ensure the quality of equipment operation.
In recent years, technological progress has greatly liberated the labor force, and the promotion and use of new equipment such as blow-out and carding, automatic winding, automatic drum change, and automatic transportation have been significantly reduced. In addition, the promotion of long-distance collective doffing of spun yarns, the large-scale use of technologies such as large-scale, large drafting, large cans, large bales, full cylinders without bale replacement, and roving replacement. Lead to a decline in user levels. This is an inevitable trend for China's textile modernization to connect with the world, but it does not mean that every factory can lay off employees at will.
It is understood that many small and medium-sized spinning enterprises in my country still used Type A equipment in the 1980s and 1990s (it is estimated that this proportion accounted for more than 50%), which belonged to low-grade equipment with low production efficiency, high failure rate and frequent maintenance. Since then, FA series products have adopted preliminary mechatronics technologies such as inverters, display screens, and industrial computers. , Belong to the middle grade. There are still a large number of non-standard FA series on the market, and even no model equipment. This kind of equipment has fewer failures in the first 6 months to 1 year, and the failures gradually increase after 2 to 3 years of stability. If there are fewer maintenance personnel at this time, it would be equivalent to killing chickens and eggs. Finally, the introduction of high-performance spinning equipment introduced in recent years, such as the new type of blowing-carding unit, collective automatic doffing spinning machine, thick and thin winding unit, automatic winder, automatic conveying device, etc. ·Use a large number of reliable equipment with high degree of automation and easy maintenance.
Many companies are willing to spend huge sums of money to import equipment, one of the reasons is its low failure rate. Even if it has been used for 3 to 5 years, as long as the maintenance is carried out in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, it will not increase too much work.
Operation optimization pays attention to details
In addition to equipment factors, enterprise resources should be comprehensively dispatched, the contradiction between labor saving and staff stabilization should be handled, and flexible incentive measures should be adopted to maximize efficiency and ensure the optimization of output and quality.
In order to strengthen the details of labor management, the operation items can be separated, such as roving replacement by block and centralized yarn replacement. Separating the spinning block from the local cleaning can expand the level, reduce labor intensity, and appropriately expand the rack capacity. Based on the above measures, the workload of medium and above varieties can reach 30-40 units/person, which can also be combined. The cluster spinning machine is used for long-distance driving to ensure that the stop and doffing are integrated in one post under the premise of end breakage rate and end retention rate. Under the condition of keeping the number of parking stations unchanged, the doffing work is cancelled, the inspection speed of the operator is increased, and the parking pedal pulley is used to stop and accelerate the inspection speed
Maintenance management is essential
There are two methods of equipment maintenance in spinning enterprises, one is to use traditional equipment maintenance methods. Security personnel shall conduct routine, regular and precise inspections or key inspections of the equipment. More specifically, we should adhere to the principle of "integration of teams in the region, and equipment in good condition at any time of the day", and the responsibility system of "five packages and one link", that is, package output, quality, consumption and safety Performance pay is directly linked. Shandong Liaocheng Guanxing Textile Group still adheres to the traditional equipment maintenance system, so that regular maintenance and condition maintenance coexist, and complement each other. Every year we carry out equipment operation competitions, reward innovative talents, pay close attention to preventive maintenance, prevent night shift failures, and ensure product quality by improving the level of professional and technical personnel, and have achieved good results.
The second is to adopt lean maintenance mode. Textile equipment management should be unique and learn from international advanced management models such as full-staff productive maintenance and implement lean equipment management. The so-called lean equipment management is the use of lean thinking and lean methods to pursue the highest level of fail-safe production, forming an equipment management model that combines fault maintenance, regular maintenance, condition maintenance and active maintenance, and establishes a point inspection and fault analysis as the core Early warning system for equipment operation. This maintenance model is a new equipment maintenance model that has been implemented in developed countries in Europe and America. The basis is that the equipment itself has online detection devices, man-machine dialogue, digital display failure, remote monitoring, and the configured equipment components are safe, reliable and durable. You can refer to the maintenance mode that combines spot inspection and trouble-free status. By transforming traditional flatbed trucks and focusing on maintenance, labor costs for maintenance can be reduced. The core of trouble-free state maintenance is pre-detection and post-control, which is a maintenance management mode that combines planned state maintenance and random state maintenance. It not only solves the resource waste of repeated frequent maintenance of equipment in the past, but also achieves the purpose of reducing burden and increasing efficiency. Many large spinning enterprises in my country have gained successful experience in lean maintenance.
No matter which of the above two maintenance modes is adopted, as long as the implementation is solid, good results will be achieved. Employment is based on "things" and is premised on satisfying product quality. If the employment target is suppressed first, the original project will not be realized, and the survival of the enterprise may be affected because the product is not recognized by the customer.
Some companies have done solid work, not only intensifying technological transformation, but also pursuing zero failure, zero maintenance, creating value flow for key processes and parts with high failure rates of key equipment, and emphasizing the entire process management of the equipment life cycle. In addition, at the beginning of each year, the equipment, varieties and management of the previous year should be demonstrated, and the number of employees should be reasonably reduced, rather than setting the number of employment targets that must be achieved. If some companies do not do a good job in a down-to-earth manner, they must do their basic work first, and do not blindly reduce staff. Otherwise, not only will they not be able to reduce staff and increase efficiency, but it will even ruin the company's future.
In short, only through better spinning technology and solid foundation work, so that everyone is responsible, can we maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of the equipment and reduce labor. The labor saving of spinning enterprises is a systematic project, which should be combined with improving efficiency, strengthening details, and consolidating the foundation of management, technology, and equipment.